There is usually a question on the first paper of the OCR GCSE in Computer Science that requires a longer answer and is worth up to 8 marks.
The marks for these questions are awarded in three bands - to get into the top band you need to include both sides of the argument and/or include both positive and negative aspects of the application of technology in that particular field.
Try to include examples related to the points you are trying to make. Even if you are short of specific examples, there are some generic points that you can make for most contexts:
Don't forget record keeping - as well as the main activity (treating patients, education, running a business, etc.) you can also keep records about the activity in a file or database and process (e.g. search and sort) them quickly.
Will the use of computers to work with people or store their data lead to security or privacy concerns?
De-skilling of the workforce - lots of new technologies replace skills, e.g. Google Maps removes the need to be able to read maps.
Could the introduction of the new technology lead to job losses or new jobs? Usually this would be the replacement of mundane jobs with more skilled IT jobs.
De-personalisation - would you like to be taught, treated or entertained by a computer or robot?
Did people derive pleasure from the technology? E-mail might be quicker and cheaper, but people like to write a letter with a fountain pen, or to receive things through the post.
Environmental impact - will the new technology require building work, the use of toxic materials, water or electricity, will it cause waste, change traffic flow or create/lesson traffic and emissions?
There could be a cultural impact if new technology replaces traditions, causes people to see how things are done elsewhere, or causes people to start using other languages (in the same way that lots of people in other countries experience English through music on the radio, or in television programmes and films).
How would the implementation of the technology be affected by legislation such as the Data Protection Act, Copyrights Designs and Patents Act or Computer Misuse Act - e.g. would they need to get clearance for images, sounds, etc. Some fields, e.g. financial services, even have their own rules that could override these - e.g. banks are required to keep records for longer than the Data Protection Act suggests.
Could the technology used disadvantage or discrimate against a particular group? This can be anything from devices being inaccessible to people with disabilities (e.g. visual impairment, colourblindness), creating a "digital divide" by being unaffordable for people on lower incomes, or requiring expensive accessories or services. Some technologies aren't intentionally discrimatory, but might cause problems because of an oversight or lack of training with appropriate examples, e.g. facial recognition software that doesn't work properly with some ethnic groups.
Are there democratic implications? For example, social media allows people to publish their opinions, which was previously only possible if you were in a position of power or worked at a newspaper. Authoritarian regimes might struggle to suppress "the truth" if people start tweeting about it, but on the other hand some governments (e.g. ours) believe that encrypted communication can be a threat to democracy due to its use by criminals and terrorists.